Countermeasure and Practice of Building External Thermal Insulation Material for Fire Protection and Thermal Insulation
I. Construction of Fragmentary Common Materials for External Thermal Insulation
At present, the thermal insulation materials used for external wall insulation are: EPS (polystyrene foam), XPS (extruded polystyrene foam), PU (polyurethane foam), rock (ore) cotton sheet, glass wool felt and ultra light polystyrene granule insulation slurry. These data generally have the disadvantage that energy saving and fire prevention can not be coordinated. Inorganic materials are poor in heat resistance and easy to extinguish, and when extinguished, they release a small amount of heat and produce a small amount of toxic smoke, which not only slows down the spread of the fire, but also causes casualties among trapped and rescue workers. Inorganic materials contain dust and coarse fibers, which can purify the air and breed bacteria easily. Inorganic materials have long been a hidden danger to people's health, and have infinite heat preservation and insulation functions. The encirclement was restricted.
Building energy-saving is the secondary content of implementing the national environmental protection and waste power policy, and is an important part of carrying out the strategy that the national economy can continue to carry out. With the improvement of energy-saving standards from 30% to 50%, the external wall insulation technology has lost considerable development and become an important energy-saving technology for construction in China. However, in recent years, exterior wall insulation materials fire frequently, resulting in serious casualties and wealth losses. Consequently, with the unilateral promotion of building energy-saving, the fire prevention achievements of building energy-saving are becoming more and more severe.
II. Countermeasures and Measures for External Thermal Insulation Reform in Construction and Existing Construction
The fire resistance limit of non-load-bearing exterior wall plays a certain role in the spread of fire among buildings, but it is not secondary. It can be seen from this that the fire prevention of building external walls is mainly to avoid the spread of fire. The focus of building fire prevention is to deal with the fire grade, fire spacing, fire zoning, safe evacuation, fire water supply, fire fighting, smoke control and smoke exhaust and other achievements. Generally speaking, the probability of extinguishing the fire on the whole exterior wall surface is very low.
First of all, we need to find out where the exterior fires can be extinguished (unless the site fires). There are special rules in the standard, and the spread of exterior fires is secondary to avoiding the outward spread of some of the ignited fires. Secondary fire source occurs outside the building, and its spreading way is to the external wall. Secondly, the indoor flame spreads upward through the opening part of the door and window of the external wall to the lower hole and enters the room, causing the lower layer to catch fire. Therefore, the barrier between the upper and lower window hole (including the gap between the two layers of the curtain wall) should be very careful, and must be handled well, which is the key point of prevention.
Second, the fire protection design of buildings, a secondary purpose is to facilitate the safe and smooth transfer of personnel, facilitate fire protection. The key point of exterior wall fire prevention is that window fire spreads upward, so that residents can be transferred within a certain time. Therefore, a time should be set so as to take measures in construction and design to meet the requirements of fire prevention. Of course, it does not exclude the blockade of other external wall fire sources, but it can not avoid the spread of some external wall fire sources and put forward the "fire performance of external wall thermal insulation", thereby improving the fire protection requirements of the whole external wall thermal insulation.
Secondary Structure and Practice
External wall insulation is secondary to external flatness and external insulation. Internal insulation is difficult to deal with because of thermal bridge insulation, which tends to show dew phenomenon, occupies the applied area, affects the secondary decoration of residents, and the suspension and fixed objects of internal wall are easy to destroy the internal insulation structure. The external insulation of external wall is to fix a layer of insulation material on the outer side of the main wall structure under the function of bonding data, and strengthen and brush bonding with glass fiber mesh on the outer side of the insulation material. Mucilage. The existing energy-saving projects in our district are basically external wall insulation. Secondly, it uses bonded mortar, which may be a common fixture, to paste and hang insulation materials on the external wall, then apply anti-cracking mortar, press into the glass fiber mesh cloth to form a maintenance layer, and initially add decorative surface. Another method is to fix various heat preservation boards which are not easy to absorb water on the external wall with common fixtures, and then hang aluminium boards, natural stones and black glass on the keel made afterwards, indirectly forming the decorative surface.
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